Winter Damaged Trees
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- ---Michael in Sterling, VA.
Trees that are planted too deeply (no root flare showing above ground) or whose soil is improved in the planting hole to the point that the roots refuse to grow beyond those comfy confines are often prone to toppling out of the ground. And trees whose bases are wrapped up in those ill-advised "decorative" volcano mounds of mulch could easily be induced to snap. You pile mulch up around the bark, the bark rots, tree fall down go boom.
In short, proper tree care can sometimes—but not always—prevent these very expensive and dangerous problems. Now, on to what you should do, should have done and should not do.
If trees topple over with their roots out of the ground in winter, you don't have to—and should not—try and replant them in frozen soil. Instead, find a supply of unfrozen topsoil or compost and 'heel' the trees in by covering their roots completely. Water the roots of your sideways trees if you have a dry spell, keep adding soil if you see exposed roots, then get some help and replant them upright (and correctly!) in early Spring, when the soil is unfrozen and they're just waking up from dormancy and have a natural urge to regrow.
For trees that have lost their tops, do even less. Clean up the ground level debris, but leave the poor damaged remnants of the trees alone. If there's enough tree left up top, it may regrow into a desirable shape or a shape that can be pruned into 'desirable' after a year or so.
"Shearing the tops" off any tree is always a bad idea. The only thing it can accomplish is more trauma to the tree and perhaps the removal of that special branch that would otherwise take over and begin the process of reformation. Cutting the top off a tree also typically makes the tree look very ugly for awhile, followed by death.
And if you just can't keep your hands off the poor things until at least Spring, I really do have to wonder if you've been compulsively pruning them (especially at the wrong time of year), mulching their trunks, feeding them chemicals or otherwise fussing over them to the point of instilling weakness into what should be your strongest plants.
Alas, no matter what, a twenty-foot high tree that's snapped off two feet above the ground is gone and should be removed. But when many trees are so affected, it's also better to wait until Spring, do an inventory and have the dead removed professionally, with their stumps pulled out of the ground. Then you can replant the area immediately with new trees—perhaps with greater care.
Q. The recent heavy snow split the trunk of a rather large Japanese red maple I have in my garden. I have read that the split may be repaired by installing a bolt to hold the two halves together and that the tree will eventually heal itself. Is this the best way to repair the tree? How do you know when a split can be repaired?
- ---Bill in Warrenton, VA
A highly skilled arborist who has experience with extreme methods of tree preservation is the best person to decide if: 1) the tree is worth the expense; and 2) the operation stands a good chance of success. And obviously, this is not do-it-yourself work. This is pay-someone-who-knows-how-to-do-it-and-has-the-tools work.
But unlike our previous question, where I believe the homeowner might be showing signs of impatience, a split requires an immediate inspection and fast-as-possible repair. It would not be unusual for a split tree to be easily repaired in January, but to be past repair after the very next ice storm makes the split much wider in February.